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The homeland of peacocks

In the west of Yunnan Province China, there is a beautiful piece of land, which is named Dehong Dai and Jingpo Autonomous Prefecture.

Science and Technology

Pubdate:2009-05-30

 

       According to the “ Book of Later Han, the Basic Annals of An Emperor ”,during the period of Qing Dynasty (221-207 BC) and Han Dynasty, there existed “Crop Rotation on the Uncultivated Land ”, ploughing with tame elephants and forcing taming buffalos to work in Dehong;the using of tea had been known to people; In Fanzhuo's “Man Book”, the minority nationalities planted teas widely in Tang Dynasty and the De’ang people were the earliest people to plant tea; they mastered the skills of woving kapok cloth with kapok fibre and mined and smelt metals with their own local methods; there had been craftsmen to facture silverware. The Dai people invented a calender that differs from Gregorian calendar and lunar calendar; they observed the celestial phenomena, forecasting the occurrence of solar and lunar eclipse and mastering some certain astronomy theories. The Pattra Culture was spreading due to the use of characters, Pattra Sutra and the paper-making technologies. The Dai people preserved a great deal of Buddhist scriptures and other cultural heritages; they had Dai methods of treatment, Dai medicines for curing diseases and works for the theories of astronomical calendar. During the period of Republic of China, the modern science spread to Dehong through the government officials and the schools and hospitals began to be set up; however, owing to the long history of feudal lord institutions, the closed and self-sufficient economy and the under-developed communication, the development for science and technology in Dehong Prefecture had been constrained; until the time of the 1950s in the 20th century, science and technology in Dehong Prefecture were still far behind the times.

  After the founding of the PRC, accompanying with the job of preventing and curing diseases and the spreading of culture and education, science and technology cause in Dehong Prefecture started to develop. In 1953, when Dehong Prefecture was established, there were only185 natural science technicians in Dehong Prefecture; they started undertaking the experimental research on tropical crops and introducing the new species for the crops and drove, spreading the agrotechniques and building up the local industries. From the years of the 1960s, the number of graduates disposed by the government from colleges and technical secondary schools had been largely increased;in 1965, the number amounted to 1540. After the year of 1978, the time when the Third Plenary Session of the 11th Central Committee was held, the idea “Science and Technology Are the First Productive Forces” gradually rooted in people’s mind. The prefectural government and its departments at all levels strengthened the investment in scientific and technological work, approving more scientific and technological projects, widening the spreading range and increasing the application force for scientific and technological achievements; for farming techniques, forestry, sugarcane, crop protection, tea, animal husbandry and veterinarian, hygiene epidemic prevention and other scientific fields, the scientific research institutions and the professional counselors systems had been set up at different levels of the prefecture, county and township; they formed a network for scientific research and generalizing its achievements; some eye-catching achievements for scientific research had been made, which reached the advanced stage of the same field in the province. In 1978, the per mu yield for the three units, Dehong Prefectural Aggie, Fengping Farm Branch, the First Brigade of Fengping, broke the record of 500 kilograms for the first time; the per mu yield of sugarcane in the Prefectural Research Institution amounted to 17.98 ton and set the new highest record in its history. In 1979, “The Experimental Project of the Threshold to Stop the Mud and Stone Flow in Hunshuigou in Yingjiang” won the first prize for the scientific research program of Yunnan Provincial Government. In 1984, the superior species of water buffalo bred in Dehong Prefecture was named as the “Dehong Prefecture buffaloes” by Yunnan Appraising Committee of Livestock and Fowls Species. In 1986, “the spark projects” were launched by the provincial government for the first time in Dehong Prefecture; until 1991, the prefecture had carried out 14 “spark projects”, among which 2 were on the country level, 5 were on the province level, 1 was on the prefecture Level and 6 were on the county level; they had made the product increase 5,270,000 Yuan and created the taxes and net profits of 1,090,000 Yuan. Until 1991, there had been 21 scientific and technological committees of the total 26 numbers in villages (Xiang) and townships, which met the experimental set standards for science and technology; there had been 33 associations of all sorts for science and technology and the correspondence college of agricultural technology had been established. 345 scientific and technological schemes were awarded the provincial and prefectural prizes, among which 74 were provincial prizes, 271 were prefectural prizes; the covering fields of the prizes were as follows: 175 agricultural projects, 40 industrial projects, 107 projects for medical health, 16 other projects, 4 tiny inventions and 3 “spark project” prizes

  During the period of “The Tenth Five-year Plan”, Dehong Prefectural Committee of C.P.C. and the Prefectural Government issued “the Resolution in Regard to Strengthening Technological Innovation and Promoting Economic and Social Development in Dehong Prefecture”, stressing the strategy of science and education in developing the prefecture, increasing the expenditure for science and technology (during the period of “The Tenth Five-year Plan”; the expenditure for 3 items of science and technology had mounted up from 200,000 Yuan per year to 500,000 Yuan per year ), carrying into execution of “ the responsible system for the goal of science and technology progress for the party’s and governmental chief executive ”, which had accomplished plentiful and substantial scientific and technological achievements. Firstly,there were some prominent effects of the science and technology projects; 93 science and technology programs were carried out during the period of “The Tenth Five-year Plan”, among which 7 were on country level, 34 were on provincial level, 52 were on prefectural level; the total investment of the programs was 1.06,00,000,000 yuan; these programs closely centered around the new developing industries and the key industries, displaying the demonstrative, guiding and supporting functions of science and technology scheme. Secondly, some high-class scientific payoffs were achieved. In the period of “ The Tenth Five-year Plan ”, 148 schemes for science and technology won the awards ranking above the prefecture level, among which 1 was “The Bumper Harvest Award” issued by the Chinese Department of Agriculture, 15 were the science and technology awards of provincial government, 132 were the prefectural government award and 1199 technologists were awarded; some scientific and technological schemes involved high technology contents; they reached an advanced stage in domestic fields, bringing up the tremendous economic and social benefit, such as “The Controlling Project of Mud and Stone Flow in Hunshuigou in Yingjiang County”, which reduced the amount of the flowing silt to 30,000 m3 at that time from that of 1,500,000 m3 in the 1970s; it protected effectively tens of thousand of lives and the safety of more than 100,000 mu of farmlands of the 9 villages(Xiang) and townships in the lower reaches of Dayingjiang. In the project of “Selecting New Superior Rice Species and Their Cultivation Demonstration”, which was directed by Dong Baozhu from the Prefectural Agricultural Scientific Research Institution, people successfully selected the Dehong Series and Deyou Series of 13 superior new rice species; the generalizing area for them amounted to 30,240,000 mu; the increased yield was 2,510,000 tons and the increased worth of product was 5,200,000,000 Yuan. For “The Dehong Project for Water Buffaloes Development between China and European Union”, which involved 28 villages(Xiang) and townships of 3 counties and cities, and filled in the blanks of international cooperation in stock raising fields in Dehong prefecture and laid a solid foundation for the industrialization of the distinguished water buffalo in Dehong. In the “Research Project for Developing Wintertime Maize ”, 5 mealie breeds were selected and their accumulative generalizing area was 1,00 0,000 mu; In “The Project of Developing Wintertime Potatoes”, its highest per mu yield for potatoes was near 3 tons and the generalizing area amounted to 20000 mu; furthermore , its market prospect was so promising that it developed a burgeoning industry; “the Project of Constructing and Utilizing the Upgrade Weather Radar System in Dehong Prefecture of Yunnan Province” ranked a leading place in Yunnan Province and reached an advanced domestic stage. For the projects of “the First Research for the Criteria of Anti-Aids Viruses Curing and Its Method in Dehong Prefecture” and “the Successful Replantation of Sever Fingers” and other projects, they exerted positive influence on the job of improving people’s health level. Thirdly, a steady group of science and technology talents were trained. By the end of the period of “The Tenth Five-year Plan ”, there had been a number of 22135 professional technicians of all fields and a number of 15199 talents with practical farming technologies who graduated from Agricultural Correspondence College; 61 professional associations had been set up in the prefectural countryside with a number of 1356 members; 6 “Demonstrative Villages for Enriching villagers by Science and Technology” and 9 “Demonstrative Parks for Prospering Agriculture by Science and Technology on prefectural level had been established . Fourthly, the legal executing system for intellectual property had been fundamentally established. In the period of “The Tenth Five-year Plan”, there were 38 cases of patent applications in the entire prefecture; the rate for applying patent technology was 37 %. Fifthly, the jobs for generalizing science and technology are prominent. During the period of “The Tenth Five-year Plan”, 1680 lectures for popularizing science and technology were held in the prefecture and the audience number amounted to 650,000; 105 exhibitions were held for popularizing science and technology and 55800 persons received the consultations for science and technology; 380,000 copies of publicity materials for scientific and technological knowledge and 4,780,000 copies of the manuals for science and technology were disposed; the large campaign named as “The King of Science and Technology Entering the Frontier” was successfully hosted in the prefecture. To sum up, the period of “The Tenth Five-year Plan” was the significant time, when the traditional industry had been improved in Dehong Prefecture and the economic quality had been upgraded; in addition, the economic structure had been adjusted and optimized. With the efforts of scientific experts and technicians, the scientific and technological achievements of all walks are striking. The scientific and technical progress, and technological innovation will become the primary driving force for the economic and social development. The prospect for scientific and technological development in Dehong is promising. (Translated by Zhang Chengtie)