The homeland of peacocks

In the west of Yunnan Province China, there is a beautiful piece of land, which is named Dehong Dai and Jingpo Autonomous Prefecture.

The Water Conservancy


  Dehong is situated in the south of the Hengduan Mountain, and the topography fluctuates. The amount of the rainfall per year is more than 1,900 millimeters, within the boundaries the rivers cross, the amount of the self-product is 13.63 billion cubic meters, the inflow from the other places is 8.17 billion cubic meters, so the total amount of the flow is 21.8 billion cubic meters, the average amount of the water in the area is 1,299 cubic meters, the average amount of the water per person is 24,000 cubic meters, which is higher than that of the province, the nation and the world, so the water conservancy in the prefecture is very rich. But on the other hand, the distribution of the water resources is uneven, more water is trouble, less water is dry, and the dry of the water occurs frequently, which seriously hold back the development of the all kinds of the economic and social tasks in Dehong. So, the construction of the water conservation has an important state in Dehong.
Yolanda time: <script src='http://cgi.yunnan.cn/hits/hits_static.asp?NBId=10666&Title=The Water Conservancy&Url=http://www.yndehong.cn/1103/2007/09/06/54@10666.htm&lastdate=2007-09-06 09:58:04'></script>


       Before 1950, the water resources were only restricted to people and the domestic animals to drink and to irritate the crops, and there was no fine water engineering. People of various nationalities constructed dams with the bamboos and excavated the small drainage way to carry on the water to irritate the fields. There were more than 500 direct canals, but the volume of the water was less than 50 million cubic meters, the efficiency-irritated fields were only 75,600 mu, which accounted for 15% of the area of the water field. There were 500,000 mu of the fields to wait for the water to transplant seedlings. Dehong prefecture had frequent flood and drought disaster. After the People’s Republic of Chine had been established, the party and the government led the various national people to start to compose the new chapter of the water conservancy facilities. Specially in 1958, under the instruction of the policy --- building the high dams, gathering the deep water, forming the reservoir, the dam and the pond groups and building the dams in the main and the branch successively”, the prefecture raised the upsurge to construct the water conservancy facilities, and constructed 20 mid-small reservoirs including the Luxi Mangjiu reservoir, the Ruili Jiele reservoir, the Zhanfeng reservoir, the Lianghe Youzhu Basin reservoir, the Yingjiang Huilong river reservoir, the Jinchang river reservoir, the Hekeng reservoir, the Chahe reservoir, the lantern river reservoir, the Changdifang reservoir and the Longchuan Mali Basin reservoir which was been building. By the year of 1962, the prefecture had constructed 96 various reservoirs and ponds, the volume of which was 13.6 million cubic meters and the number of reservoir that the current capacity was above 0.3 cubic meters per second was 63, the controlled volume of the current was 0.218 billion cubic meters, and the area irritated effectively was 525,100 mu. In the 70s of the 20th century, under the instruction --- the agriculture learns Dazhai and the comprehensive government of the mountain, the water field, the forest and the road, the prefecture emerged to construct the stripped field, to govern the mountain, to change the river course and to carry out the project of spraying irrigation and the drink for the people and the domestic animals. The representative governing the mountain was the government of the drainage and soil erosion using the muddy drainage conservation in Yingjian County, the representative of the spraying irrigation project was the battle of hundred ponds in Liang River Big Plant, and the representative of the project of the drink of the people and the domestic animals was the government of the river course in the Daying river, the Mangshi river and the Fa river in Liang River County. By the 1980, the prefecture had constructed 93,200 mu of the machine-plowing stripped fields, 17,000 mu of the terraced fields, and the project of the muddy drainage conservation won initial success; the prefecture had constructed and renovated 148.88 kilometers of the bank of the rivers and protected 265,300 mu of the farm field; the prefecture had completed 149 permanent spraying irrigation ponds, the volume of which was 79,000 cubic meters and the spraying area was over 5,000 mu, and solved the problem that it was difficult for 40,000 people and over 14,000 heads of the domestic animals to drink. In the 80s and 90s of the 20th century, the centre government enlarged the investment of the water conservancy in Dehong, and the water conservancy in Dehong entered a new historical development period, constructed 10 mid-small reservoirs including the Husong River, the Mangdan, the Haigang, the Bengxiang, the Mangbie, the Tianhu, the Moshui, the Namu, the Runqian, the Dagang, and the total volume of the reservoirs brought through 0.2 billion cubic meters; in the Yingjiang dam, the Ruili dam, the Longchuan dam, the Meiyang dam and the Zhefang dam that the inner flood was serious, the drains water system constructed to take shape, and the new-added area to eliminate the flood was 90,000 mu; the national construction plan included the Daying river and the Ruili river, and the the protection system of the two rivers basically formed; the government of the muddy drainage greatly saw the result, and the discharge of the soil and sand per year dropped from over 1 million cubic meters in the 70s of 20 century to less 100,000 cubic meters.

  In 2000, there were 69 reservoirs, and the storage capacity was 201,710,000 cubic meters. Among them, there were 4 medium reservoirs, and the storage capacity was 134,630,000 cubic meters; there were 19 small (1) reservoirs, and the storage capacity was 528,400,000 cubic meters; there were 46 small (2) reservoirs, and the storage capacity was 14,240,000 cubic meters. 165 small ponds and dams were constructed, and the storage capacity was 4.12 million cubic meters. They constructed 9,858 irrigation conduits, and there were 399 irrigation conduits whose current capacity was above 0.3 cubic meters per second. 20 mechanical and electrical lift water projects were completed, and the installed capacity was 1,080 kilowatts. The prefecture had 858,000 mu of effective irrigating area, and the irrigated degree was 47%. The volume of the water supplied the water conservancy per year was 717 million cubic meters, which accounted for 3.29% of the total volume of the water resource, and the water supplied to the agriculture was 656 million cubic meters, and the industry 30 million cubic meters, the inhabitant in the city and the countryside 31 million cubic meters. 192,800 mu of the flood area was eliminated, which accounted for 74.5% of the area that it was easy to flood. 335.65 kilometers of the banks of the rivers were completed, which protected 593,900 mu agricultural field and 508,800 people. The area managing the soil erosion was 863.3 square kilometers, accounting for 26% of the area of the soil erosion. It was solved that 259,100 people and 165,500 heads of the large domestic animals had the difficulty in drinking.

  In 2005, the guiding ideology of the construction of the water conservancy in Dehong turned from the traditional water conservancy to the modern water conservancy, the ecological water conservancy and the sustainable development water conservancy, and the construction of the water conservancy appeared the sustainable, fast and health development. The large (2) reservoir on the Mali dam in Longchuan made a smooth progress; the Meiban river reservoir in Luxi completed the acceptance of the work; the reinforcement project of the Mangbie small (1) reservoir in Luxi completed the acceptance of the work; the reinforcement project of the Mangdan medium reservoir in Longchuan and the Mengmao small (1) reservoir in Ruili began to construct. The prefecture raised upsurge of the construction of the med-small water electricity plants. Throughout the whole year, the prefecture completed 782,487,000 Yuan of the investment in the construction of the water conservancy and the water electricity. Among them, the investment in the water conservancy was 172,910,000 Yuan, and the water electricity was 609,577,000 Yuan. the accumulated area effective irrigating was 886,400 mu, and the area that harvested whether drought or raining incidents was 415,600 mu; the area managing the soil erosion was 1,101 square kilometers; there were 66 med-small reservoirs, and the total storage capacity was 207,495,000 cubic meters; the length of the banks of the rivers was 365.9 kilometers, in which the length of the banks meeting the standard was 144.5 kilometers, which protected 516,500 people.(Source: Translated by Wei Yinxia)